Standardization is the application of standards in the manufacture of products so that one is like nay other. Standardization applied not only to the product themselves but also to the methods used in their manufacture. For example, manufacturing companies use standards for their employee rules as use standards for their employee rules as well as for their products. There are usually standards for safety and work procedures in areas that affect employee behavior. There are, in addition, numerous technical standards that the product must meet. An electrical part must operate a specified number of times without failure. The part must also fit into the types of equipment it is supposed to.

    The use of standards within a company is usually a matter of common sense. The success may depend upon the competence of supervisory personnel and the effectiveness of the organization as a whole. There are also standards that originate outside the company. These standards are set through industrial and professional associations at the national, regional, and international level.

    A typical industrial association for setting standards is the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Through NEMA, the leading electrical equipment manufacturers set and use standards for a wide variety of products, from lamp bases to electric-power-transmission equipment. Such standards apply to electric power requirements, use, durability, reliability, and so forth. Another group, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) sets standard specifications and testing methods for materials. The American Standards Association (ASA) was established to serve as a clearinghouse and coordinator for the standardization work done by such groups as the above.


Answer these questions based on the text above!

  1. What does the first paragraph tell you?
  2. Mention two technical standards, which have to be fulfilled by the products!
  3. Is standardization used for products only? Explain!
  4. What does the underlined their in paragraph 1 line 3 refer to?
  5. What does the underlined it in paragraph one line 8 refer to?
  6. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?
  7. Mention two important things in the application of standards in a company!
  8. What is the third paragraph about?
  9. Mention some associations related to standardization and differentiate their roles respectively!
  10. What do standards for electrical equipment usually cover?

Fill in the blanks with the suitable words provided!

  1. Do you know how to ____________________ a lathe?
  2. They __________________ three factories and a huge warehouse.
  3. His work seems to be ________________ nowhere. It means that he is achieving nothing.
  4. Those industrial engineers are proved to be highly ________________ workers.
  5. The key doesn't ____________________ to lock.
  6. The employee explains the technical __________________ of the new car.
  7. The enterprise was doomed to _________________________________
  8. The town is well _________________ with public transport.
  9. Our latest model should meet your _____________exactly. It has to be as what you want.
  10. The firms are engaged in the ________________ of plastics.


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