In the 20th century, innovations in manufacturing and the introduction of new and more toxic raw materials and chemicals compounded the problems of occupational health. Particular dangers, undreamed of by workers of the 19th century, were associated with exposure to radioactive materials; to the wide range of chemicals used in the manufacture of paints, plastics, herbicides, and building materials; and to electromagnetic radiation, notably in the form of X rays, ultra violet light, microwaves, and infrared radiation.
Many human cancers were shown to be related to occupational exposure: bladder cancer by exposure to aniline dye; lung cancers by inhalation of chromium compounds, radioactive ores, asbestos, arsenic, and iron; skin cancer by regular handling of certain products of coal, oil, shale, lignite, and petroleum; and skin cancer, leukemia, and bone cancer by exposure to radium and X rays.
Physical conditions in the workplace, such as extreme heat or cold, prolonged loud or high-pitched noise, and vibrations caused by tools and machinery, have also come to be recognized as contributing to the development of specific diseases or chronic health problems. Finally, emotional and psychological stresses associated with work, and their medical consequences, have taken their place in the growing list of diseases labeled as occupational.
I. Answer the following questions.
1. When did the first serious awareness of occupational diseases appear?
2. What factors influence the occupational health?
3. What are the particular dangers undreamed of b the workers of the 19th century?
4. What kinds of human cancers were shown to be related to occupational exposure?
5. What is another cause of the occupational disease?
II. Find the synonym of these words.
1. dangerous (par.1) 5. exposure (par.3)
2. workplace (par.1) 6. regular (par.3)
3. wide (par.2) 7. tools (par.4)
4. problems (par.2) 8. extreme (par.4)
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