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THE MASS MEDIA AND MASS COMMUNICATION


 

    We have emphasized the dominance of traditional mass media in research and some criticism of society's effort at mass communication. In recent years, this equating of mass media with mass communication has proven troublesome as the variety of media forms merge and multiply with changes in technology and social need. Take for example, videotext, a system of distributing personalized information from central computer databases to subscribers through telephone lines or cable television. The media product is unique for each individual. The consumer interacts with the computer, similar to asking questions of a librarian.

    Small audio cassettes, the sort used for dictation and personal listening of music, were one of the essential media in instigating popular support of the 1979 Iranian revolution. The spiritual leader of the revolt, the Ayatollah Khomeini, then exiled in Paris, communicated to millions in faraway Iran by cassette. Motorcyclists passed along the small tapes among mosque, bazaars and homes where the grassroots of the revolution met (Katirayi, 1987). New tapes were frequently smuggled into the country, swiftly duplicated and then distributed.

    Rural China has used "media forum" to spread limited issues of newspapers and radio receivers among an immense population. Forum leaders (called cadres) interpret the media, translating news and information into local dialects, answering questions and giving local examples to supplement stories. Folklore group tour remote villages, giving plays on simple health practices interspersed with entertainment. In short, the dividing fine between the mass media and individual media is blurred.

    New media, personal of "small" media are gradually making their way into use.

    Mass communication should be viewed more as an institution than as simple particular technologies. Society needs information to exist as an organized community. Collective behavior – organizing, forming of institutions, providing services, merging specialized skills-is probably central to a good definition. This activity may be informal (as with the Iranian revolution), crudely skilled (as with the Chinese rural media forums) or a personal, high-tech dialogue (as with the computer-based videotext).


 

KEITH R. STAMM, JOHN E. BOWES,

The Mass Communication Process: "A Behavioral and Social Perspective"


 

  1. Answer these questions in brief!
    1. What have we emphasized in research at mass communication?
    2. What has proven troublesome?
    3. What is called by system of distributing personalized information from central computer databases?
    4. With videotext, does the consumer interact with the computer directly or by asking questions of a librarian in the computer?
    5. What kind of essential media is used for instigating popular support of the Iranian revolution?
    6. Who is Ayatollah Khomeini?
    7. How did the grassroots of revolution accept the small tapes from their leader?
    8. What has Rural China used to transmit limited issues among an immense population
    9. One of these people's jobs is translating news and information into local dialects. Who are they?
    10. What does society need to exist as an organized community?


Determine the appropriate meaning of the underlined words by choosing one of the words in the brackets.
1. The variety of media forms merge and multiply with changes in technology and social need. (Spread / meet / unite)
2. Folklore group tour remote villages, giving plays on simple health practices interspersed with entertainment.(make over / put something between / hide something away)
3. Rural China has used “media forum” to spread limited issues of newspapers and radio receivers among an immense population. (a few / enormous / various)
4. We have emphasized the dominance of traditional mass media in research and some criticism of society’s effort at mass communication. (accentuate / choose / explain)
5. Small audio cassettes are the sort of tools used for dictation and personal listening of music. (meaning / type / simple)
6. We have emphasized the dominance of traditional mass media in research. (looking / view / study)
7. The fine dividing between the mass media and individual media is blurred. ( unclear / clear / easy)
8. New tapes were frequently smuggled into the country, swiftly duplicated and then distributed. ( collected / passed out / pulled out )
9. They made a hard effort to distribute the tapes that had been duplicated. ( emotion / attempt / power)
10. After the new tapes were smuggled into country, they duplicated them swiftly. (in shift / lately / quickly)

silahkan download kunci jawaban pada link berikut:
http://www.ziddu.com/download/4455826/ANSWERKEYikom.pdf.html



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