Some strategies are:

  • Limiting the number of subordinate clauses in an utterance, (ie, those starting with which, when, that etc). Although they are useful for adding more information to a sentence, they should be used in moderation, eg:

    Research has shown, for example, [that primary and secondary level learning can be greatly enhanced] [when teachers recognise their students' own languages and dialects], [which may or may not be related to the language of instruction],...

  • Limit the number of conjoined phrases in a sentence, (ie, those linked together the commas and and). Avoid trying to pack too much information into one sentence, eg:

    Research has shown that learning styles, cognitive development, motivation, degree of subject difficulty, and test and exam conditions have an important effect on outcomes in the primary, secondary and higher education systems
    and that this effect can be determined by changes in teaching practice.

  • Always consider the possibility of saying something in several shorter sentences rather than one very complex sentence. For example, make a list of your main points and dedicate one sentence to each point;
  • Try to use everyday language rather that academic language;
  • Introduce new words or phrases with definitions;
  • Refer students to a glossary of terms;
  • Refer back to the section on academic vocabulary.