Hacker and cracker are two terms that are closely related to computer. The first is so familiar that almost all computer users, either beginners or experts, know about it. However, the latter is apparently not as familiar as the familiar as the first. Rarely do computer users know what cracker is. Unlike hacker, this term is hard to be found in our daily conversation in spite of the topic. Consequently, such question as what cracker is and whether cracker is similar to hacker or not.

    Cracker is one who attempts to break into the system via cracking or guessing user passwords. Most of the crackers are young teenage punks who are very malicious and seek to get their kicks from destroying or alternating data on a system. The media often times mistakes the cracker for the hacker. Moreover, cracker's level of education or intelligence on the system and its inner working etc. is very low.

    Hacker, in the other hand, is an individual who yearns for knowledge. The hackers are very knowledgeable individuals. They often times know several programming languages, work extensively with the inwards and outwards of UNIX, have a firm understanding of all TCP/IP implementation and protocols. They keep abreast on all the security related issues involving computers. Breaking into a system for a hacker is a thrill, it is a challenge that they take on. The hacker takes much delight in exploring the system from the outside/inside searching vigorously for misconfigurations, bugs, and holes in the operating system that would allow them to break into a machine. Once in the system the challenge has been completed and they have succeeded in breaking in. it is against hacker ethics to alter any data aside from the logs that are needed to clean their tracks. They have no need or desire to destroy data as malicious crackers. They are there to explore the system and learn more. The hacker has a constant yearning and thirst for knowledge that increases in intensity as their journey progresses.

 I. Answer the questions briefly.

  1. What are the purposes of the cracker in breaking system?
  2. Why is the term of cracker hard to be found in our daily life?
  3. How does cracker break the system?
  4. What is the hacker ethic?
  5. Why does hacker want to break into the system?

 II. Decide which statement is true or false.

  1. Hacker is a malicious person.
  2. Hacker has more intelligent on the system than cracker.
  3. Cracker's activities are for knowledge.
  4. The media usually change hacker for cracker.
  5. Cracker doesn't want to destroy data.

 III. Find the synonyms of the words in the box.

  1. Familiar:     
  2. expert:        
  3. guess:        
  4. delight:    
  5. desire:    


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    Standardization is the application of standards in the manufacture of products so that one is like nay other. Standardization applied not only to the product themselves but also to the methods used in their manufacture. For example, manufacturing companies use standards for their employee rules as use standards for their employee rules as well as for their products. There are usually standards for safety and work procedures in areas that affect employee behavior. There are, in addition, numerous technical standards that the product must meet. An electrical part must operate a specified number of times without failure. The part must also fit into the types of equipment it is supposed to.

    The use of standards within a company is usually a matter of common sense. The success may depend upon the competence of supervisory personnel and the effectiveness of the organization as a whole. There are also standards that originate outside the company. These standards are set through industrial and professional associations at the national, regional, and international level.

    A typical industrial association for setting standards is the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA). Through NEMA, the leading electrical equipment manufacturers set and use standards for a wide variety of products, from lamp bases to electric-power-transmission equipment. Such standards apply to electric power requirements, use, durability, reliability, and so forth. Another group, the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) sets standard specifications and testing methods for materials. The American Standards Association (ASA) was established to serve as a clearinghouse and coordinator for the standardization work done by such groups as the above.


Answer these questions based on the text above!

  1. What does the first paragraph tell you?
  2. Mention two technical standards, which have to be fulfilled by the products!
  3. Is standardization used for products only? Explain!
  4. What does the underlined their in paragraph 1 line 3 refer to?
  5. What does the underlined it in paragraph one line 8 refer to?
  6. What is the main idea of paragraph 2?
  7. Mention two important things in the application of standards in a company!
  8. What is the third paragraph about?
  9. Mention some associations related to standardization and differentiate their roles respectively!
  10. What do standards for electrical equipment usually cover?

Fill in the blanks with the suitable words provided!

  1. Do you know how to ____________________ a lathe?
  2. They __________________ three factories and a huge warehouse.
  3. His work seems to be ________________ nowhere. It means that he is achieving nothing.
  4. Those industrial engineers are proved to be highly ________________ workers.
  5. The key doesn't ____________________ to lock.
  6. The employee explains the technical __________________ of the new car.
  7. The enterprise was doomed to _________________________________
  8. The town is well _________________ with public transport.
  9. Our latest model should meet your _____________exactly. It has to be as what you want.
  10. The firms are engaged in the ________________ of plastics.


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    The process of digestion begins when food is taken into the mouth. Chewing breaks the food into smaller pieces, thereby exposing more surfaces to the saliva. Saliva itself has a double function, it moistens the food, so facilitating swallowing, and it contains ptyalin, which begin the conversion of starch into simple sugars. Digestion do not occur until the food passes down through the oesophagus into the stomach. The stomach has both chemical and physical function. The walls of the stomach, which are protected by a layer of mucus, secrete juices composed of several enzymes and hydrochloric acid. The most powerful enzyme is pepsin, which are protected by a layer of mucus, secrete juices composed of several enzymes and hydrochloric acid. In addition, during these chemical reactions waves contraction and relaxation, known as peristalsis, sweep the walls of the stomach. They churn the food particles into a semi-solid mass known as chyme.

    From the stomach, the chyme passes into the small intestine through the pyloric sphincter. Much undigested material is still present. Proteins have not been completely broken down, starches are still being converted into simple sugars, and fats remain in large globule. In the small intestine the process of digestion is completed by the action of bile, which is secreted by the liver and released by the pancreas, and erepsin and invertase, secreted by the walls of the small intestine. Food, which are still undigested pass on in a liquid state into the large intestine, and are now called feces.

    Absorption of the products of digestion takes place mainly through the wall of the small intestine. Its inner surface is covered with minute hair-like projections called vili. Each villus contains several bloods capillaries and a specialized lymphatic vessel, known as lacteal. Glucose, fructose, galactose and the amino acids are all absorbed directly into the blood by entering the blood capillaries inside the vili. Glycerol and the fatty acids, on the other hand, pass into lacteals. The lymph then carries the fat up to the left internal jugular vein, where it enters the bloodstream.



I. Answer these questions based on the text above.

  1. Where does the process of digestion begin?
    1. What is the function of chewing?
    2. What are the two functions of saliva?
    3. Where do the major processes of digestion occur?
    4. What is the chemical function of the stomach?
    5. What is the physical function of stomach?
    6. What does the first paragraph discuss?
    7. What is feces?
    8. What are lacteals?
    9. Which products of digestion are not absorbed directly into the bloodstream?


    II. Answer these following questions with your own words.

    1. Why does man need three meals a day, whereas a snake needs to eat once a week?
    1. Are there any differences between digestion process in human being and in animals? Explain it briefly!


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